1. Changes in land and sea use

Increased land and sea use is the number 1 of direct drivers.

Our use of land and sea …

… is changing landscapes, shores, reefs, swamps and forests at a frightening speed.


  • Coral reefs: Approximately 50% live coral cover of reefs lost since 1870s.
  • Wetlands: Over 85% of wetlands present in 1700 had been lost by 2000.
  • Forests:  45% increase in raw timber production since 1970 and 50% of agricultural expansion occurred at the expense of forests.