4. Pollution

Pollution is driver number 4 of the direct drivers with large impact

We produce …

… more waste than ever before and pollute our environment every day.


  • 10x plastic: Plastic pollution has increased tenfold since 1980.
  • Toxic waste: 300-400 million tons of heavy metals, solvents and toxic sludge from industrial facilities are dumped annually into the world’s waters.
  • Cost of expansion: Air pollution is highest in least developed countries.